Paleontology

January 23, iStock Pi Day isn’t until March 14, but there’s another pie-centric holiday on the calendar. Pie Day falls on January 23, and we’re sharing our picks for the best pie in every state. Greensboro, Alabama This trendy community space serves fried chicken salads and various wraps and paninis, but the highlight are their pies, made with exceptionally buttery crusts. Have a slice of coconut cream or chocolate chess pie while you enjoy good conversation and a friendly vibe. And if you have a hankering for a real taste of home, chef Seaborn Whatley says they’ll even try to duplicate an old family favorite if you happen to have your grandmother’s recipe book on hand. Anchorage, Alaska The Bear Tooth Theatrepub is more than a dine-in movie theater—it’s also a restaurant, draft brewery, and concert venue all in one. But after you’ve finished off some fresh Alaskan fish tacos, save room for the caramel turtle fudge ice cream pie. Made with an Oreo cookie crust, the pie manages to perfectly balance chocolate fudge, vanilla ice cream, and smooth caramel. Mesa, Arizona This pie-only bakery focuses on top-notch ingredients such as fresh whipped cream, wild blueberries, and bars of authentic Belgian chocolate.

Lesson: evolution mini

Each lesson is designed using the 5E method of instruction to ensure maximum comprehension by the students. The following post will walk you through each of the steps and activities from the geologic time scale lesson plan. Class Activity The teacher can model this activity first.

acquired trait: A phenotypic characteristic, acquired during growth and development, that is not genetically based and therefore cannot be passed on to the next generation (for example, the large.

A plesiosaur measuring about 23 feet 7 meters long and dating back to about 65 million years ago was uncovered in Patagonia. Researchers suspect it represents a new genus and species, but they have yet to fully examine and name the creature, which is one of the largest plesiosaurs on record. The head and part of the neck are missing, but the reptile’s long flippers, ribs and spine are in excellent condition. Fernando Novas Fossils at their feet People stand on the fossils embedded in rock notice the large flipper on the right at Argentino Lake.

Fernando Novas Underwater tail People could see part of the plesiosaur’s tail even before the excavation began. Fernando Novas Sandbags The researchers created a fort around the fossil using sandbags. Fernando Novas Draining the pool With the help of a generator, the researchers pumped the water out of the sandbag fort so that they could excavate the plesiosaur skeleton.

Fernando Novas Excavation in progress Fernando Novas right helps his colleagues put plaster jackets on the stones containing the fossils. Water continued to flood the enclosure, so the paleontologists had to almost continuously bail it out with buckets left. Courtesy of Fernando Novas Plasterwork The paleontologists isolated the rock containing the fossil, including the plesiosaur’s tail seen here , and covered it in plaster to help protect it.

Earth’s History: Events, Places and Impacts

Graphs, charts, and images can be used to identify patterns in data. Hook 15 minutes To start this lesson I display the following image. I then tell the students that today we will begin to explore the evidence we have for evolution, and play Stated Clearly’s movie, What is the Evidence for Evolution. I stop the movie at 3:

Jul 23,  · Uncovering Our Ancestral Microbiomes To discover the evolution of the bacterial residents we host, a new field of research delves deep into unexpected corners of our fossil record.

It includes the study of fossils to determine organisms’ evolution and interactions with each other and their environments their paleoecology. It now uses techniques drawn from a wide range of sciences, including biochemistry , mathematics , and engineering. Use of all these techniques has enabled paleontologists to discover much of the evolutionary history of life , almost all the way back to when Earth became capable of supporting life, about 3. As knowledge has increased, paleontology has developed specialised sub-divisions, some of which focus on different types of fossil organisms while others study ecology and environmental history, such as ancient climates.

Body fossils and trace fossils are the principal types of evidence about ancient life, and geochemical evidence has helped to decipher the evolution of life before there were organisms large enough to leave body fossils. Estimating the dates of these remains is essential but difficult: Classifying ancient organisms is also difficult, as many do not fit well into the Linnaean taxonomy that is commonly used for classifying living organisms, and paleontologists more often use cladistics to draw up evolutionary “family trees”.

The final quarter of the 20th century saw the development of molecular phylogenetics , which investigates how closely organisms are related by measuring how similar the DNA is in their genomes. Molecular phylogenetics has also been used to estimate the dates when species diverged, but there is controversy about the reliability of the molecular clock on which such estimates depend.

Mr. Erdmann’s AP Bio Blog: Why Evolution Is True: Fossil Record

The Evolution Lab contains two main parts: Students build phylogenetic trees themed around the evidence of evolution, including fossils, biogeography, and similarities in DNA. Students use both morphology and analysis of DNA sequences to identify relationships between species and to organize species and traits into phylogenetic trees. Along the way, students will watch seven videos that introduce the missions and give context for how the theme of each mission helps us understand how evolution has shaped life on Earth.

Students explore an interactive tree of life and trace the shared ancestry of numerous species. Deep Tree helps students understand the scope of deep time and the points at which speciation occurred throughout evolutionary history on Earth.

To view all courses (opens new window) AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY G – 3 Units Course Outline (opens new window) Introduction to Automotive Technology This course is designed to teach the student about the operation and maintenance of modern automobiles.

At the same time, it should reveal an example of pseudoscience which should be part of any effort to improve science literacy and critical thinking. Students are taken through a combination of some background information and interactive experiences, and checked frequently by questions to confirm understanding. The narrative includes concepts of isotopes, radioactive decay, half-life, mineral formation, age analyses, Fair Test questions , and isochrons.

The lesson can be used as a one-day team activity, individually in class, or as a self-teaching homework assignment. It is intended to either stand by itself, or to serve as a useful introduction to the very effective online interactive Virtual Age Dating Tutorial. Several independent lines of evidence confirm that the Earth is billions of years old.

Department of Geosciences

By Mazuk The principle of superposition builds on the principle of original horizontality. Most scientists today believe that life has existed on the earth for billions of years. In step 2, students can investigate the role of brittle vs ductile environments in relation to compressional, tensional, and shear stresses.

The word “hominid” in this website refers to members of the family of humans, Hominidae, which consists of all species on our side of the last common ancestor of humans and living apes.

Students should first understand what a fossil is, the differences between fossils and other natural objects, and that not all plants and animals become fossilized. Next, students learn about the various types of fossils and model the process of fossilization. Finally, students can model the excavation process and use fossils to make inferences about past environments. Our featured lessons integrate science and literacy through the activities themselves and through lesson extensions.

These lessons have been designed for upper-elementary students, but can be easily modified to include primary students as well. What is a fossil? How do fossils form? How do people find fossils? The categories and lessons are listed in a sequential order. Although each lesson is written as an independent entity, taking one lesson out of the larger sequence may lessen the impact on student learning. Therefore, we recommend using as many lessons as possible in the suggested order.

Use our suggested titles see the Virtual Bookshelf column or your own favorites to start the unit, or intersperse them throughout.

Smithsonian FossiLab Projects

In the early s, European explorers brought home Wild Turkeys from Mexico, where native people had domesticated the birds centuries earlier. Turkeys quickly became popular on European menus thanks to their large size and rich taste from their diet of wild nuts. Later, when English colonists settled on the Atlantic Coast, they brought domesticated turkeys with them. The English name of the bird may be a holdover from early shipping routes that passed through the country of Turkey on their way to delivering the birds to European markets.

Male Wild Turkeys provide no parental care. Newly hatched chicks follow the female, who feeds them for a few days until they learn to find food on their own.

Stratigraphy is a branch of geology concerned with the study of rock layers and layering (stratification).It is primarily used in the study of sedimentary and layered volcanic graphy has two related subfields: lithostratigraphy (lithologic stratigraphy) and biostratigraphy (biologic stratigraphy).

A demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations; 1. B demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials; and 1. C use the school’s technology and information systems in a wise and ethical manner. The student is expected to: E demonstrate the use of course equipment, techniques, and procedures, including computers and web-based computer applications; 2.

F use a wide variety of additional course apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures as appropriate such as satellite imagery and other remote sensing data, Geographic Information Systems GIS , Global Positioning System GPS , scientific probes, microscopes, telescopes, modern video and image libraries, weather stations, fossil and rock kits, bar magnets, coiled springs, wave simulators, tectonic plate models, and planetary globes; 2.

G organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; 2. H use mathematical procedures such as algebra, statistics, scientific notation, and significant figures to analyze data using the International System SI units 2. I communicate valid conclusions supported by data using several formats such as technical reports, lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, presentations, and technical posters.

The student is expected to 3. A in all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student; 3. C draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services 3.

Life Science: Dating the Fossil Record Lab by Nathali Alcantar on Prezi

Everything Worth Knowing About Scientific Dating Methods This dating scene is dead. The good dates are confirmed using at least two different methods, ideally involving multiple independent labs for each method to cross-check results. Sometimes only one method is possible, reducing the confidence researchers have in the results.

The Biggest Trilobites Isotelus rex is the largest known species of trilobite. It was found in northern Manitoba. This humongous arthropod measures about 28 inches (72 centimeters) long. Isotelus rex is now on display at the Manitoba Museum in Winnipeg.

Its fairly precise up unto about 5, years, but after that there is really no way to calibrate it, that means to verify it by some other independent method, so it works out ok to a point. Also, there’s no reason that things have always been exactly the same as far as decay rates are concerned. Mayor changes could have occurred when God cursed the ground or during the flood. I believe that all of the fossil fuels and things like that resulted from the flood. This is why they contradict each other.

Which life forms came first ,the ones that God created or the ones fossils indicate? I like fossil collecting myself, but believe in the Bible completely also. Here are scientific facts. Evolutionary theory is a myth. This is science vs. Of over 4, quotations in the set of books this Encyclopedia is based on see Order Sheet , only statements are by creationists.

Yet, without long ages, evolutionists cannot make their theories plausible. Long ages is not evolution.

The History of Life

July 1, When a Rock Dates a Fossil7 min read In my last two articles I talked about carbon dating for formerly living things and general radiometric dating for minerals and the problems with both methods. The short answer is: From the time of the ancient Greeks, observers saw thousands of strata layers in the earth and hypothesized that each layer was deposited gradually over long periods of time. The problem is that you cannot simply look at a rock and tell what layer it belongs to.

Layers repeat and are often out of order.

Nov 05,  · It’s been 80 years to the day since Orson Welles’ infamous radio drama “The War of the Worlds” echoed far and wide over the airwaves. So we want to bring you back to our very first live hour, where we take a deep dive into what was one of the most controversial moments in broadcasting history.

Radioactive decay[ edit ] Example of a radioactive decay chain from lead Pb to lead Pb. The final decay product, lead Pb , is stable and can no longer undergo spontaneous radioactive decay. All ordinary matter is made up of combinations of chemical elements , each with its own atomic number , indicating the number of protons in the atomic nucleus.

Additionally, elements may exist in different isotopes , with each isotope of an element differing in the number of neutrons in the nucleus. A particular isotope of a particular element is called a nuclide. Some nuclides are inherently unstable. That is, at some point in time, an atom of such a nuclide will undergo radioactive decay and spontaneously transform into a different nuclide.

This transformation may be accomplished in a number of different ways, including alpha decay emission of alpha particles and beta decay electron emission, positron emission, or electron capture. Another possibility is spontaneous fission into two or more nuclides. While the moment in time at which a particular nucleus decays is unpredictable, a collection of atoms of a radioactive nuclide decays exponentially at a rate described by a parameter known as the half-life , usually given in units of years when discussing dating techniques.

After one half-life has elapsed, one half of the atoms of the nuclide in question will have decayed into a “daughter” nuclide or decay product. In many cases, the daughter nuclide itself is radioactive, resulting in a decay chain , eventually ending with the formation of a stable nonradioactive daughter nuclide; each step in such a chain is characterized by a distinct half-life. In these cases, usually the half-life of interest in radiometric dating is the longest one in the chain, which is the rate-limiting factor in the ultimate transformation of the radioactive nuclide into its stable daughter.

March 10 to 20

Received Mar 16; Accepted May This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Understanding the origin and diversification of organisms requires a good phylogenetic estimate of their age and diversification rates.

Sep 10,  · Learn how your family history is connected to the human journey with National Geographic’s Geno DNA ancestry kit. This is the story of one of the greatest fossil .

Geological Time and the Rock Record The rock record of interest to students of Geology is dominantly the record of sedimentary rocks. Igneous rocks include volcanic rocks, which can and do cover large areas of Earth’s surface. But they do not in general have many fossils in them. Occasionally a lava flow may overwhelm and preserve organisms as fossils, but that is rare. Volcanic ash beds are important in dating other rock layers, however, as we shall see. Sedimentary rocks are laid down and accumulated on the surface of the earth under normal temperatures and pressures.

The particles that make up the sediments – clays, silts, sand, pebbles, and boulders, are formed from pre-existing rocks by weathering and are then transported by various agents of erosion until they are finally deposited in a permanent resting place. Molded then by further sedimentary layers deposited on top of them, sediments are compressed, so that any water that lies between the grains is squeezed out in dewatering, often leaving behind any minerals it contained in solution to form cements that bind the sediments together.

Eventually the squeezing and cementation allows one to say that a rock has formed from the original sediment.

Fossil Record Mystery